I have made the Indian history ‘panoramic view’ for today’s computer enabled generation in an abridged manner just to create interest in the reader. More information and knowledge could be gathered from other sources. I think Gen Next should go through this small document in their spare time. At a glance it gives the panoramic view about our history.
MOURYAN EMPIRE IN 300 BC
MARATHA EMPIRE IN 1758
MAP COURTESY: WIKIPEDIA
Alexander invaded Bharatvarsh. At that time Puru (Pourous), and other Aryavarta Kings resisted him. There were no nations by name England, France, Germany. Only Aryavarta, China, Greek nations, Saxo German were existing. Alexander (Son of Phillip) could go upto Vyas (Beas) river after crossing Sindhu (Indus) river.
Alexander went back to Iran.
Death of Alexander.
Chandragupta Maurya became ruler, with Chanakya united whole of Bharat into a big strong progressive Bharatvarsha. He was son of Mura and Dhananand (king of Magadh). Mura was from Shakya tribe. Following Hindu Kings fought with Alexander - Saubhuti and Kath near Panchnad (Punjab), while going back Malav, Magasa, Agrashreni and Shudra and Pouras (got defeated by Alexander).
Selucus invaded Bharat. That time Chandragupta and Chanakya had unified North India and defeated Selucus.
Death of Chandragupta.
Bindusar son of Chandragupta unified Bharat under him. Even most of South India.
Death of Bindusar.
Ashoka Son of Bindusar, kept most of the Bharatvarsh under his rule as a unified nation. Later part of his life he turned Budhist and devoted his entire life as a Budhist and propagating Budhist religion. He propagated Buddhist religion on Vedic religion by force. Made India vulnerable because of his extreme Ahimsa (अहिंसा) principles.
Death of Ashoka.
Damatrius of Bactria, invades Bharatvarsha. That time most of North India was under the influence of Budhists and could not resist the invader. King Khargole of Kalinga kingdom (Odissa) fights. He is not from Budhist school of thought and knew the limits of Ahimsa.
Miniander near Kamboj (in Persia now in Iran) invades India. Very less resistance by Budhist kings.
Pushyamitra, a soldier from Bruhadrath Mourya army, he took away kingdom from Bruhadrath who was ineffective. Unifies the country, builds Bharatvarsh and drives the Greek out, dies in 149 BC.
20 BC -50 AD
Shak tribe invades Greeks and Balhic nations. Many Greeks come to Bharatvarsha now for protection and remain here by becoming Hindus and Bhudsists.
Andhra (Satavahanas) and Malav from Madhyabharat gave fitting reply. They went till Gujrat and Rajasthan and freed that area from Shaks. Malavs killed Shaks and their king Nahapan! Bharatvarsh fought for 100 yrs. Rest of India was more or less under Budha dharma and was not in position to give a fitting reply because of extreme Ahimsak principles. On the victory a new Samvat was created and called as Vikram samvat or Shak (but it is a grey area – whether this is Vikram Shak or later when Vikramaditya fought with Kushans). The Shalivahana era, also known as the Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. Its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of the year 78 [from Wikipedia - Thanks]. Western Kshatrapas (35–405 BC) were Saka rulers of the western part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Southern Sindh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan). They were successors to the Indo-Scythians who invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with Saka calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom.
The Satavahana king (the king titled as Shalivahana is Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Saka to celebrate his victory against the Sakas in the year 78 AD. Prior to this, in 56 BC Vikrama Samvat era was founded by the emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain in a similar fashion following his victory over the Sakas.
80 AD - 120 AD
Kushans, Vima Kadphisis and Kanishk (Kushan King) invades Bharat When Kanishk invaded Bharat, he conquered Gujrat, /Rajasthan and came to Narmada but in South Satavahanas. The dynasty of Satavahanas lasted for around 450 years and was too strong so Kanishka went towards Himalaya, where he was attacked by China. Kanishk defeated Chinese army and took Chaskand, Khotan and Kashgar. Kanishk becomes Budhist later his empire comes to an end.
Samudragupt and then Chandragupta (Gupta Dynasty) who was later named as Vikramaditya fights Kushans. Kushans were finished and Vikramaditya also defeated remains of Shakas by defeating Shak king Rudrasen from Gujrat, Sindh, Kathiyawad and established almost free Bharat again. He called himself Vikramaditya and started a Samvat called Vikramaditya (?). Around 350 BC Shalivahan Dynasty ended.
450 AD – 550 AD
Hoon tribe from Central Asia invades. Kumargupta and then Skandagupta resist the invasion. First invasion was defeated. In second invasion Skandagupta dies, and Hoon's Mihirgul comes upto Ujjaini. Yashodharma a Marshal from Gupt dynasty takes over the reins and waged war by unifying all Hindu kings and defeats Mihirgul king of Hoon. This became the end of Hoon invasion. Hindu empire again enlarged upto Khotan, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Gilgit and towards north east. Some Hoons which remaind in Bharat lost their identity and became Hindus. The Gurjar clan from Haryana are said to be the Hoons who got assimilated in this nation.
Birth of Muhammad Prophet. Arabs, Mongal, Turq tribes were there earlier but still did not become Musalman. Around 500 AD - 600 AD, in Bengal, Dynasties of Pal, Sen, and Burman mushroom.
Muhamad Kasim Invades Bharat. Muhamad Kasim defeated King Dahir, a Hindu king near Panchnad (Punjab / Sindh). As usual Buddhist were not there on the scene, either they became Muslims or simply vanished to other countries. These mass conversions of Buddhist (or rather mass embracing of Muslim religion by Budhist because of fear) is the reason for the decline of Budhism from India. Although this religion started in Bharatvarsha, it became a minority religion here. Many Buddhists in East Bengal became Muslims as a result of fear. That is why we see Muslim concentration in East Bengal (later Bangladesh!). Many Buddhists from Bihar (Vihar) went towards eastern countries and populated them.
700 AD- 1000 AD
In these years Muslims invaded other countries. Gibraltar, North Africa, Portugal, Spain, South France. Many nations such as Egypt, was converted to Muslim countries i.e. their identity was lost forever. Till that time Muslim invasion in Bharat was limited to Sindh where kings like Jaypal and later his son Anangpal kept fighting Muslims although they lost many times they did not surrender. AFTER MUHAMAD KASIM, BHARAT ENJOYED 300 YRS OF HINDU RULE. In South India, Pallavas ruled. Kanchipuram was their capital. They were defeated by Choules and then Rashtrakut dynasty started. Rashtrakut took Gujrath, Madhya Bharat (Verul and Kailas caves in Maharashtra are from this period - around 900 AD). Shankaracharya in 750 AD (from Kaladi) from Kerala, changed the course of Hindu dharma and tried to re- galvanise it.
To be continued.................