Monday, February 25, 2013


First it was at Taj Hotel in Mumbai, and now terror attack on 21 Feb 13 in Hyderabad. The news reports say that there is a clear link of Indian Mujahadeen behind this terror attack. It further says that from the gathered evidences, IM is just a front propped up by Lashkar e Tayeba (LeT). Lashkar is wholeheartedly supported by Pakistan. That means Pakistan has violated our country’s territorial rights by indulging in an unprovoked offensive action by triggering this terror attack and killing our country’s citizens. We don’t have to call for a cabinet committee on security to understand what is happening. Any dictionary will give out the meaning of what is happening. If we look up in the dictionary the meaning of ‘action of another country in violating, by force the territorial rights by unprovoked offensive’ it will throw out ‘AGGRESSION’ as the word. Pakistan is engaged in an organized and prolonged conflict with our country, the ulterior motive of Pakistan is to take away our land. If we look up the meaning of this in the Dictionary, then the word for this act is ‘WAR’.


 What are we waiting for? Do we think that somebody else from other nation will come and tell us in our ears softly that “Pakistan is our enemy; and is engaged in the Dharma of an enemy. It is engaged in a War with us and this act of Pakistan should be viewed as an aggression upon us”.


It is for us to read the writing on the wall. We must see the reason and stop at once all kinds of cultural, sports exchanges and this ‘AMAN KI ASHA’ type behavior. Next Pakistan should be put on the notice, and if another such incident happens then we know what we have to do – hit them deep and devastate them. If we are still not ready for that then at least we must stop all kinds of confidence building measures with Pakistan. We take confidence building measures and they plan terror attack killing our citizens deep inside our territory. Both cannot go along. By indulging in these confidence building measures with our enemy, we compromise on our national will to fight our enemy. We can’t have friendly matches, friendly business and friendly ties and get assaulted by him at the same time. It is time we recognize our enemy and treat him like one.

Saturday, February 23, 2013


1026 AD
Muhamad Gazni invades Bharat. Gazni came from Sindh to Somnath and plundered and destroyed the Somnath mandir. Gazni died in 1030. Earlier invasions by Alexander, Greeks, Shak, Hoon, Kushan  were different from Muslim invasions. They invaded but never tried to convert the religion and therefore once they were defeated either they were assimilated in Hindu religion or went to their countries back. But Muslim invasions had a different agenda. They invaded to rule and also started mass, forced conversions. Bharat was not prepared for that. Bharat that time was engulfed in its internal dictat of not to reconvert, to not to cross Sindhu river and a class system, started giving a weak defence. Hindus converted to Muslims were not reconverted, also when we used to win back lost territories by defeating Muslim invaders, thereafter never took revenge on Muslims. Never plundered them (like Spain and other Europeon countries) as a result, Muslim population started rising in Bharat. This was a legacy from Buddhism. Remember Dharmantar is Rahstrantar.  धर्मान्तर से राष्ट्रान्तर।. In South India that time from 10th century, Pandya from Madurai, Chowl from Tanjawar were major dynasties. After Gazni died in 1030 again for next approx 150 yrs Bharat was unified as a loose confederation of Hindu kingdoms, with a unifying thread of Hindutva or Hinduism or Hindu way of life!.
1176 AD
Muhamad Ghori invades Bharat. Invades Panchanad (Punjab), but was defeated near Uuch mountain. Around that time Turks and Mongals started becoming Muslims in religion. Around 1063 AD Karnaraj dynasty ruled Gujrath and he created its capital as Karnavati, which was there till 1400 AD. In 1412 AD Ahemedshah defeated Karnaraj dynasty and changed Karnavati to Ahemedabad, again to his liking! Now when the chorus is there to revert back to original name, there is equal pressure from our own people why this. These changed names from original arya names are are small monuments of our subjugation.
1191 AD
Muhamad Ghori again invades Bharat. Gets defeated at the hands of brave Prithviraj Chouhan. Unfortunately due to Sadgunvikruti (सद्गूणविकृती - extreme use of good virtues like forgiving the enemy, without taking into consideration its appropriateness to the situation) he let Ghori free! Ghori flees back. Bharat’s down fall starts.
1193 AD
Muhamad Ghori forgets large hearted Prithviraj Chouhan’s gesture because his agenda was to conquer. King of Kanauj Raja Jaychand (Historically documented first known anti national and betrayed the Nation (गद्दार)) assisted Ghori against Pritviraj Chouhan! Prithviraj Chouhan defeated by Muhamad Ghori.
1195 AD
Muhamad Ghori again invades Bharat! This time invades Raja Jayachand (who had done an antinational act of assisting Muhamad Ghori against Prithviraj Chouhan) and plunders Delhi. This is the reason why we should study history so that we don’t repeat our mistakes. Otherwise history has the habit of repeating itself! This kept happening in Bharat. In this campaign of Muhamad Ghori, Qutubuddin assisted Ghori as a Sardar. Ghori went back to Gazni, along with Pritviraj in captivity. Prithviraj Chouhan was taken to Gazni (in Persia), and there he was tortured and his eyes were taken out by Muhamad Ghoris men. Here is the famous story of blind Pritviraj Chouhan in captivity kills Ghori by aiming at him when Ghori shouts at Pritviraj Chouhan. The story is very gripping and purposefully it is not given here, and I urge children to read it from net or from comic books of AMAR CHITRA KATHA. After Ghoris death Qutubuddin proclaimed himself as sultan of Delhi. Qutubuddin converted Vishnu stambh (constructed by Samudragupt) and later renovated by Pritviraj Chouhan as Prithvistambh to Qutubminar. Today also one can see tell-tale signs of Hindu temple and the destroyed hindu deities. Even Iron Pillar has sanskrit carvings on it and symbols of Vishnu and Shankh. One can see them today also.
Till 1226 AD
Qutubudin proclaims himself as Sultan of Delhi. Rules Delhi till 1210 AD. 1210 AD Qutubuddin dies. There was no one to take over from Qutubuddin that time his daughter Razia claims the throne but got engaged to a slave called Jallauddin , thereafter because Turks did not like her engagement with Jallaudin, one Turk Sardar Altunia tried to kill them, Razia tries to influence Altunia but Altunia kills Razia and Jalaluddin. This story was made as Razia Sultan movie! Around this time till 1200 AD, elsewhere in South India there was stability and progress. Marco polo traveller visited Pandya dynasty durbar and has given detailed description of the cultural advancement and richness of India. After Gaznis invasion there was instability for 50 - 60 yrs but then whole of South Bharat was invasion free. The compositions of Nammalvar, the great Vaishnavite saint, in praise of Sree Maha Vishnu of this city, prove beyond doubt that Padmanabhasamy Temple existed in the ninth century. In the year 1050 A.D, the Temple was reconstructed and the management re-organized by the then ruler. This is just to give example of stability.
1226 AD
Bulban becomes Sultan of Delhi. Turks and Mongals enter the scene.
1286 AD – End of 1300 AD
Death of Bulban and Jalaluddin Khilji a Mongal becomes Sultan of Delhi in 1290 AD. Son of Jalaluddin, Allaudin starts South campaign. 1294 AD he invades Devgiri, King Ramdevrai was ruling it. Till this time (1400 AD) South Bharat was free from invasions history should take this fact into consideration. Various Hindu dynastis as Chol, Chel, Kalinga, Pandya, Rashtrakut, Andhra all had stable kingdoms. This fact is not told to our Indians mostly Gen Next plainly Indians are not aware of it. What is fed to them is just history of slavery, defeat by giving chronology of invasions. In between stable years (centuries) are not stressed and told to them. In fact these years are significant and periods of 150 yrs (or easily more than 8 - 9 generations of stability). One should see in that perspective. In contrast our independent India is just 60+ years old!
1296 AD
Allaudin becomes Sultan after killing his father Jalludin (a common thread in Muslim leadership which can be seen today also seen in Pakistan). Allaudin invades Sourashtra and Rantambhore kingdoms in 1301 AD.
1308 AD
Mallick Kafur a young Hindu boy (which was taken forcibly by Allaudin Khilji during his Gujrath campaign because he liked him, converts him and became his loyal sardar and invades Maharashtra and Mysore (Hoysala kings ruled Mysore that time).
Apr 1320
Khusro Khan he as Sultan (Like Mallik Kafur was forcibly taken from a Hindu family and converted to Muslim), but when he became Sultan he proclaimed  -“ as he was made a Muslim forcibly now he is again converting himself to Hindu and this whole Muslim Sultanat has become Hindu Sultanat”. This is never told in our history. This was Sultanat was there for one year. But Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq killed Khusrokhan by year end and again that spark of Hindu kingdom died and became a Muslim kingdom.
1321 AD
Ghiyasuddin Tuglaq – Sultan of Delhi. After Ghiyasudding his son Muhamad Tuglaq became Sultan of Delhi. He was whimsical Sultan. He was instrumental in changing name of Devgiri to Daulatabad and made it the capitol instead of Delhi! Just when the Capitol was being changed at a huge cost, he changed his mind and again changed the capitol from Daulatabad to Delhi.
1336 AD
Now in South, Muslim Sardar Bahamani revolted against Delhi Sultan and he declared himself Sultan of South India and established Bahamani kingdom. Krishnadevrai - A Hindu kingdom emerges in South India. After muhamad tughlaq (1351 death), Firozshah Tughlaq became Sultan – as a weak Sultan he acknowledged Bahamani kingdom and Krishnadevrai kingdom.  1374 AD Krishnadevrai kingdom king of Krishnadevrai dynasty Harihar and Bukk defeated Bahamani king (at Gulbarga).
1388 AD
Death of Firozshah Tughlaq.
1397 AD
Taimurlang a Tuqi invaded after crossing Sindhu River. He conqured upto Haridwar, Shivalic mountains. At that time only Rajput kings were resisting Muslims but most of them used to get defeated because we were divided.
1400 AD
Sayyad became Sultan of Delhi.
1488 – 1517 AD
Lodhis became (Turqi) Sultan of Delhi. In 1517 AD Sikander Lodhi became Sultan of Lodhi. Muslims say Sikander is their name and therefore Alexander was Muslim! Now during  Alexander’s period Muslim religion was not existed. In Persia people used to call Alexander as Sikander, and these greeks settled in Persia used to cristian their sons name as Sikander. After many generations when Muslims overpowered Persia and converted the Greeks there to Muslim religion, the tradition of using Sikander as a popular name continued in Muslim religion and they adopted it as their name. A very staunch Hindu nationalist Rana Sanga resisted these Mongals all through out his life.
1526 AD
Ibrahim Lodi became Sultan of Delhi. Rana Sanga (Chitod King) defeated Ibrahim lodhi. Chitod king Sanga finished Muslim Kingdom. That time Daulat Lodhi a Sardar from Lahore, invited Babar from Afghanisthan to help the Muslim Sultanat.
1530 AD
But while fighting Rana Sanga was killed and here strong Rajput resistance finished. Babur became Badshaha (Mongal) of Delhi, Died in 1530 AD. He true to Muslim tradition desecrated, demolished Ayodhya temple and converted it into symbol of Mongal victory as Babri Mashid. The main contention is this Somebody comes from outside Bharat demolishes a sentimental monument here and converts it into some other thing. As a nation is a blot. It is akin to Osama (from Afghanisthan (history repeats!) ) desecrating  and demolishes WTC a pride and symbol of economic strength of America. America was not like Bharat having extreme अहींसा, they retaliated and finished their Babar aka. Osama. Here we went to court! Had it been India and if we would not have studied history we could have ended up creating a Muslim monument at the place of WTC!. This is why we should study History and learn from our mistakes and remain ever vigilant. British, French, Dutch, Portugese started coming to Indian shores. We were still sleeping chanting अतिथी देवो भवः।
1550 – 1600 AD
Bahamani kingdome splits - Adilshaha (Bijapur), Qutubshah (Golconda), Imadshahi (Varahd), Nizamshah (Ahemadnagar), Bidarshah (Bidar). Son of a telangi Brahmin (Like Malik Kafur and Khusro was converted to Islam when they were young) was Imadshaha, and Nizamshaha was son of Timmapa Bahiru these were captured Hindu sons during war and as per Muslims now well known strategy, converted them to muslim religion and now they became enemies of our nation. But Krishnadev rai dynasty,  Vijaynagar kingdom was strong rich and influential and they kept all these Muslim kingdoms at bay, it ended when Nizamshah defeated the king in 1564 AD Talikot war. In Delhi, Humayun became Badshaha, soon Shersingh dethroned him, thereafter Adilshah became Badshah. Later Humaun 1542 AD (Son Akbar) again came from Iran and dethroned Adilshah and became Badshah.  Humaun died in 1556 AD. Adilshah had kept Hemu (Hindu as his vazir).
1510 – 1540 AD
Albuquarq from Portugal, took Goa from Bijapur Adilshaha. And started conversions to Christianity, we remain dumb, we did not learn from History! With Xaviers and Albuqarq brutalities can be read in their own ‘Cs Hindus De Goa Republica Portuguesa, by their own Doctor Potonio Noronhua.
1560 AD
There in Delhi Akbar becomes Badshaha. Hemu (Remember? Adilshah kept him as his Vazir?) Revolted against Muslim Sultanat and declared himself Badshah. Bahiramkhan was care taker at that time of 12 yr old Akbar. He fought with Hemu at Panipat, Hemu was winning but fell at the last moment and lost thereafter. Sad day for Hindu kingdom.
1564 AD
Akbar defeated Gondwan king, 1567 AD, Akbar defeated Chitod (Rana Sanga son Udaisingh. Remember with every Rajput king, there was lot of resistance before giving up by Rajputs. When they fell Akbar went in Chitod and he and his army killed 30,000 rajputs and their Wifes! And still we say that Akbar was good. Names roads after him (In Delhi there is a prominent road called Akbar road) Still we say that Akbar was Muslim Ramraja! Everything was destroyed by him, but son of Udaisingh, Rana Pratap, again started to build the army for getting even with Akbar and for Chitod.  Ranapratap almost killed Salim (son of Akbar) in famous HaldiGhati war. Till his death in 1581 AD he kept fighting with Monghals.
End  1500 AD
Guru Nanak established Sikh Panth.
1630 AD
Birth of Shivaji. Shivaji by his Guerrila warfare created a kingdom devoid of Muslims in Maharashtra. This was then expanded by Peshwas all over. The policy changed hereafter. It was never DEFENCE but the policy was to go in for an aggresion!. Slowly Arabs, Turks, Mongal invaders from across Himalayas stopped invading and Shivaji concentrated in creating Hindupatpatshahi - that is to establish Hindu Kingdom against the Muslim original invaders including the Delhi Sultanat. With the collective will of Hindus the tide against Bharat turned. Earlier even with other brave Hindu kings victory was always elusive to Hindus against the Muslims, not with Shivaji, as if the collective will prevailed, as if everything came together, from the day he started the campaign victory always blessed him.
1739 AD
Nadirshah invades Bharat and destroys Mongal Badshahi in Delhi. Becomes new ruler of Delhi.
1747 AD
Abdalli becomes Badshaha of Kabul. Abdalli conquers Lahore. Till 1758 he invades three times and gets defeated at the hands of Marathas. 1758 Raghunathrao of Marathas goes beyond Attok, and Maratha empire conquers Lahore.
1758 AD
At the pinnacle of its reign, the Maratha Empire governed most parts of the contemporary Subcontinent of India (Pakistan, Republic of India, and Bangladesh together with neighbouring Afghanistan and Nepal). Other than conquering different areas, they kept many contributories that were restricted by contract to give a particular sum of tax every year, named as “Chauth” (chauth means out of their income, 1/4th to be given to Maratha empire). Besides seizing the entire Mughal Kingdom, the dynasty overpowered the Mysore Sultanate which was led by Tipu Sultan and Hyder Ali, Nawab of Bengal, Nawab of Oudh, Nawab of Arcot and Nizam of Hyderabad and also the Polygar empires which ruled in the southern part of the country. They forcibly collected chauth from Oudh, Delhi, Bihar, Bengal, Punjab, Orissa, Mysore, Hyderabad, Rajput provinces and Uttar Pradesh. The dynasty of the Maratha rulers stretched its territory till the frontiers of Afghanistan in 1758. The army of this empire overpowered the Afghan military in the contemporary province of Kashmir and Pakistan. The supreme commander of the Afghan forces was Timur Shah, who was Ahmad Shah Durrani’s son. The number of warriors in the Afghan army was approximately 25,000-30,000.  The Maratha soldiers slaughtered and plundered thousands of Afghan warriors in the month of April 1758, and took over Multan, Lahore, Attock in the Punjab province, Peshawar, and Kashmir. Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, urged the Maratha rulers in 1752 to assist him in conquering Afghani Rohilla. In the same year, they departed from Poona and overwhelmed Afghan Rohilla, seizing the entire territory of Rohilkhand (contemporary northwestern part of Uttar Pradesh). After Lahore when Marathas were coming back to Maharashtra because of Sadgunvikruti (सद्गूणविकृती) they did not take revenge on Muslims. They did not convert them to Hindus. They did not desecrate or demolish their mosques. A golden opportunity was lost. Same thing happened when they defeated Tipu Sultan, they did not take back the converted Hindus (to muslims) back to Hindu fold because of that time धर्मबंध.  They did not do any of this kind. This was one good opportunity to correct the wrong.
1800 – 1820 AD
Maharaja Ranjit Singh almost freed whole of Punjab till Kashmir from Monghals. Till 1400 AD Kashmir was ruled by Hindu kings. After advent of Mongals they ruled till Maharaja Ranjit Singh freed (not whole of Kashmir). Aurangzeb the cruelest of all (Son of Jahangir) became Badshah. He imposed Ziziya tax, he desecrated our temples, he killed many Hindus who refused to become muslims. Very unfortunate that one of the prominent road in Delhi is named after him and the one who established Hindu patpatshahi, Shivaji’s name is not there in Delhi, no wonder after generations people will remember Aurangzeb as the Sultan of India and will forget Shivaji. That is if correct history is not taught to Gen Next.
1857 AD
The Great revolution for Independence - 1857. १८५७ का स्वातंत्र्यसमर. Again these British and some Indian historians try to brush off this as Sepoy Mutiny, I will write sometime afterwards about it more. For British administration it was convenient to brush it off saying it was Sepoy Mutiny but after independence our historians should have corrected and atleast acknowledge it as the first great revolution for our independence.
Independent India.
65 years of freedom.
To be continued.................


Friday, February 1, 2013

WHO ARE WE???????? (PART II)


I have made the Indian history ‘panoramic view’ for today’s computer enabled generation in an abridged manner just to create interest in the reader. More information and knowledge could be gathered from other sources.  I think Gen Next should go through this small document in their spare time. At a glance it gives the panoramic view about our history.








327 BC
Alexander invaded Bharatvarsh. At that time Puru (Pourous), and other Aryavarta Kings resisted him. There were no nations by name England, France, Germany. Only Aryavarta, China, Greek nations, Saxo German were existing. Alexander (Son of Phillip) could go upto Vyas (Beas) river after crossing Sindhu (Indus) river.
325 BC
Alexander went back to Iran.
323 BC
Death of Alexander.
321 BC
Chandragupta Maurya became ruler, with Chanakya united whole of Bharat into a big strong progressive Bharatvarsha. He was son of Mura  and Dhananand (king of Magadh). Mura was from Shakya tribe. Following Hindu Kings fought with Alexander - Saubhuti and Kath near Panchnad (Punjab), while going back Malav, Magasa, Agrashreni  and Shudra  and Pouras (got defeated by Alexander).
315 BC
Selucus invaded Bharat. That time Chandragupta and Chanakya had unified North India and defeated Selucus.
298 BC
Death of Chandragupta.
298 BC
Bindusar son of Chandragupta unified Bharat under him. Even most of South India.
273 BC
Death of Bindusar.
273 BC
Ashoka Son of Bindusar, kept most of the Bharatvarsh under his rule as a unified nation. Later part of his life he turned Budhist and devoted his entire life as a Budhist and propagating Budhist religion. He propagated Buddhist religion on Vedic religion by force. Made India vulnerable because of his extreme Ahimsa  (अहिंसा) principles.
232 BC
Death of Ashoka.
222 BC
Damatrius of Bactria, invades Bharatvarsha. That time most of North India was under the influence of Budhists and could not resist the invader. King Khargole of Kalinga kingdom (Odissa) fights. He is not from Budhist school of thought and knew the limits of Ahimsa.
215 BC
Miniander near Kamboj (in Persia now in Iran) invades India. Very less resistance by Budhist kings.
184 BC
Pushyamitra, a soldier from Bruhadrath Mourya army, he took away kingdom from Bruhadrath who was ineffective. Unifies the country, builds Bharatvarsh and drives the Greek out, dies in 149 BC.
20 BC -50 AD
Shak tribe invades Greeks and Balhic nations. Many Greeks come to Bharatvarsha now for protection and remain here by becoming Hindus and Bhudsists.
70 AD
Andhra (Satavahanas) and Malav from Madhyabharat gave fitting reply. They went till Gujrat and Rajasthan and freed that area from Shaks. Malavs killed Shaks and their king Nahapan! Bharatvarsh fought for 100 yrs. Rest of India was more or less under Budha dharma and was not in position to give a fitting reply because of extreme Ahimsak principles. On the victory a new Samvat was created and called as Vikram samvat or Shak (but it is a grey area – whether this is Vikram Shak or later when Vikramaditya fought with Kushans).   The Shalivahana era, also known as the Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. Its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of the year 78 [from Wikipedia - Thanks]. Western Kshatrapas (35–405 BC) were Saka rulers of the western part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Southern Sindh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan). They were successors to the Indo-Scythians who invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with Saka calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom.  
The Satavahana king (the king titled as Shalivahana is Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Saka to celebrate his victory against the Sakas in the year 78 AD. Prior to this, in 56 BC Vikrama Samvat era was founded by the emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain in a similar fashion following his victory over the Sakas.
80 AD - 120 AD
Kushans, Vima Kadphisis and Kanishk (Kushan King) invades Bharat When Kanishk invaded Bharat, he conquered Gujrat, /Rajasthan and came to Narmada but in South Satavahanas. The dynasty of Satavahanas lasted for around 450 years and was too strong so Kanishka went towards Himalaya, where he was attacked by China. Kanishk defeated Chinese army and took Chaskand, Khotan and Kashgar. Kanishk becomes Budhist later his empire comes to an end.
300 BC
Samudragupt and then Chandragupta (Gupta Dynasty) who was later named as Vikramaditya fights Kushans. Kushans were finished and Vikramaditya also defeated remains of Shakas by defeating Shak king Rudrasen from Gujrat, Sindh, Kathiyawad and established almost free Bharat again. He called himself Vikramaditya and started a Samvat called Vikramaditya (?). Around 350 BC Shalivahan Dynasty ended.
450 AD – 550 AD
Hoon tribe from Central Asia invades. Kumargupta and then Skandagupta resist the invasion. First invasion was defeated. In second invasion Skandagupta dies, and Hoon's Mihirgul comes upto Ujjaini. Yashodharma a Marshal from Gupt dynasty takes over the reins and waged war by unifying all Hindu kings and defeats Mihirgul king of Hoon. This became the end of Hoon invasion. Hindu empire again enlarged upto Khotan, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Gilgit and towards north east. Some Hoons which remaind in Bharat lost their identity and became Hindus. The Gurjar clan from Haryana are said to be the Hoons who got assimilated in this nation.
570 AD
Birth of Muhammad Prophet. Arabs, Mongal, Turq tribes were there earlier but still did not become Musalman. Around 500 AD - 600 AD, in Bengal, Dynasties of Pal, Sen, and Burman mushroom.
711 AD
Muhamad Kasim Invades Bharat. Muhamad Kasim defeated King Dahir, a Hindu king near Panchnad (Punjab / Sindh). As usual Buddhist were not there on the scene, either they became Muslims or simply vanished to other countries. These mass conversions of Buddhist (or rather mass embracing of Muslim religion by Budhist because of fear) is the reason for the decline of Budhism from India. Although this religion started in Bharatvarsha, it became a minority religion here. Many Buddhists in East Bengal became Muslims as a result of fear. That is why we see Muslim concentration in East Bengal (later Bangladesh!). Many Buddhists from Bihar (Vihar) went towards eastern countries and populated them.
700 AD- 1000 AD
In these years Muslims invaded other countries. Gibraltar, North Africa, Portugal, Spain, South France. Many nations such as Egypt, was converted to Muslim countries i.e. their identity was lost forever. Till that time Muslim invasion in Bharat was limited to Sindh where kings like Jaypal and later his son Anangpal kept fighting Muslims although they lost many times they did not surrender.  AFTER MUHAMAD KASIM, BHARAT ENJOYED 300 YRS OF HINDU RULE.  In South India, Pallavas ruled. Kanchipuram was their capital. They were defeated by Choules and then Rashtrakut dynasty started. Rashtrakut took Gujrath, Madhya Bharat (Verul and Kailas caves in Maharashtra are from this period - around 900 AD). Shankaracharya in 750 AD (from Kaladi) from Kerala, changed the course of Hindu dharma and tried to re- galvanise it.

To be continued.................